KIDS COUNT: First eight years

Legislation gaining attention in Lansing would force third-graders behind in reading to redo a grade. A new KIDS COUNT policy report out today offers some better options.

Michigan policymakers are addressing the importance of investing in early childhood by expanding the state-funded preschool program for 4-year-olds, a key recommendation in the report, The First Eight Years: Giving Kids a Foundation for Lifetime Success, by the Annie E. Casey Foundation. But the administration and Legislature fall down on another important recommendation: Support for low-income families. (more…)

Michigan House and Senate Reach Agreement on the FY 2014 Human Services Budget

 Full report in PDF

On Tuesday, May 28, the joint House/Senate Conference Committee for the Department of Human Services approved its Fiscal Year 2014 budget for the DHS. The DHS conference report was subsequently approved by the full House of Representatives as part of HB 4328, an omnibus bill that includes the budgets for all state departments and services except higher education, community colleges and K-12 School Aid. A vote by the full Senate is expected in the coming week. Agreements reached by the joint House/Senate conference committees can be either approved or rejected by the full House and Senate, but cannot be amended on the floor.

After years of declining investments in human services, the final DHS budget agreement cuts spending by 10.2%, or $685.7 million. The deep cuts in DHS public assistance programs have largely been the result of recent policy decisions that limit eligibility, including a new asset test for food assistance, and more stringent enforcement of lifetime limits on income assistance—both adopted in 2011.

What is most unacceptable about the cuts in public assistance is that they come at a time when poverty is increasing, and unemployment—while dropping from peak levels—remains high. Further, many of the jobs that are being found are low wage, making it increasingly difficult for workers to support their families.

Exacerbating the problem have been recent tax policy changes that have increased taxes for low-income working families, further whittling away their wages. In 2011, Michigan lawmakers approved a major overhaul of Michigan’s tax system that cut business taxes by $1.8 billion, financed through tax increases on moderate- and low-income workers, as well as pensioners.

As part of that tax shift, lawmakers reduced the state’s Earned Income Tax Credit by 70%—from 20% of the federal credit to just 6%. The EITC is a proven tool for keeping children and families out of poverty and has been shown to increase employment and reduce the need for public assistance. It is estimated that a 20% credit kept 14,000 children out of poverty in Michigan. At 6%, an estimated 5,000 children will be kept out of poverty, leaving another 9,000 children behind.


The DHS budget is the third largest in Michigan, accounting for 13.5% of total spending from federal and state sources this year. The DHS administers a range of public assistance, child welfare and adult services at a cost of approximately $6.7 billion in the current fiscal year. Included in the DHS budget are funds for the Family Independence Program; the Food Assistance Program; State Disability Assistance; State Emergency Relief; and child protective, foster care, adoption and juvenile justice services.


Governor: The governor’s proposed DHS budget included a 9.8% cut in total spending, for a reduction of over $658.3 million. State General Funds dropped by $15.7 million or 1.5% in the Governor’s budget.

Conference: The Conference Committee reduced the DHS budget by 10.2%, from $6.7 billion in the current fiscal year to $6.02 billion—a reduction of $685.7 million.


FAP (formerly called the Food Stamp program) is completely federally funded, with an average monthly benefit for a two-person household of $267. Over 70% of FAP recipients receive no other state cash assistance. With increasing unemployment and need between fiscal years 2004 and 2011, caseloads grew by 135%. Since that time, in part due to state policy changes limiting eligibility, caseloads have begun to drop.

Key among those changes was the adoption in 2011 of a limit on FAP assets. Families must now have less than $5,000 in total assets, including the value of vehicles after certain exclusions, in order to receive food assistance. This asset limit resulted in less access to assistance for low-income families and individuals, and caused the state to turn away federal funds available to assist low-income families.

Governor: The governor’s budget reduced funding for FAP by $683.7 million in recognition of the loss of federal funds from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act as well as caseload reductions. The governor’s budget assumed that FAP caseloads would fall from 1.1 million cases appropriated this year, to 876,650 in Fiscal Year 2014—a 19.4% reduction. The actual average monthly FAP caseload through April of this year is much lower than appropriated at 912,339.

Conference: The Conference Committee adopted the governor’s caseload projections.


FIP provides cash assistance to low-income households with dependent children. To be eligible for FIP, an average family of three must have an annual income of less than $9,800, and financial assets of less than $3,000. The maximum benefit for a family of three is $492 per month. Approximately seven of every 10 FIP recipients are children, and 60% of those children are under the age of 9. FIP caseloads have been declining dramatically in recent years, in large part the result of policy decisions, including the adoption in 2011 of changes in lifetime limits for assistance. Total FIP spending is estimated to be $255.3 million in the current fiscal year.

As part of federal sequestration, the Administration chose to eliminate the annual clothing allowance for approximately 30,000 children receiving FIP in cases that do not include an eligible adult—the only direct client grant reduction. Since 1999, Michigan has provided at least some children receiving FIP an annual clothing allowance—in recognition of the reality that the failure to raise public assistance grants has reduced their value to less than one-third of the federal poverty threshold. At its peak, more than 150,000 children were provided a back-to-school clothing allowance. In 2011, the program was restricted to children in FIP cases that do not include an adult, leaving behind more than 120,000 children.

Governor: The governor’s budget reduced funding for FIP by $15.8 million to a total of $239.4 million to reflect continued reductions in caseloads. The governor projects FIP caseloads will fall from 53,298 in the current year to 49,226 in Fiscal Year 2014—a reduction of 7.6%.

Conference: The Conference Committee:

  • Reduced expected cases and funding for FIP based on May caseload estimates. The Conference Committee projects that there will be a total of 45,710 FIP cases in FY 2014.4 The DHS reports that the average monthly caseload for the FIP program fell from 83,507 in Fiscal Year 2011 to 55,971 in April of this year.5
  • Provided $2.9 million to restore the clothing allowance in the 2013-2014 school year, retaining the restriction that only children in FIP cases without an eligible adult can receive the assistance.
  • Did not fund a new substance abuse screening and testing pilot for FIP applicants and recipients in at least three counties, as proposed in HB 4118.


The SDA, which is a state-funded program, provides cash assistance to disabled adults who have annual incomes below $5,400. The payment level for a single adult is $269 monthly. With the adoption of the Conference Committee report, funding for SDA will be down 39% since 2010.

Governor: The governor recommended a decrease of $546,600 (all State General Funds) to reflect an anticipated drop in the number of SDA cases from 8,777 this year to 8,600 if 2014—a reduction of 2%.

Conference: The Conference Committee further reduced expected SDA cases to 7,777 based on the May Revenue Estimating Conference consensus caseloads—a reduction of 11% below the current fiscal year, and 9.6% below the governor’s recommended caseload.


DHS assists low-income individuals and families facing emergencies that threaten health and safety. Through a combination of direct financial assistance and contracts with a network of nonprofit organizations such as the Salvation Army and local Community Action organizations, low-income households can receive assistance with emergency housing, utility shut-offs, home repairs, relocation assistance and burials.

For energy services, families must have incomes below 150% of the federal poverty level; for non-energy services, a family of three must have an income of $625 per month or less. Families with cash assets over $50 must pay toward the emergency, and the value of non-cash assets cannot exceed $3,000 for a family of two or more.

Governor: The governor included a total of $235 million in federal and state restricted funds, including $175 million in federal Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program funds, and $60 million in new state restricted funds for a Low-income Energy Assistance Fund—in response to a new state law (P.A. 615 of 2012) requiring DHS to establish a new consolidated energy assistance program with a single, simplified application. Revenues for the Low-income Energy Assistance Fund would be collected through the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs and administered by DHS.

Conference: The Conference Committee agreed with the governor and provided $60 million in restricted funds for energy assistance.


A range of child and family services programs are funded through the DHS, including protective services to investigate charges of child maltreatment; foster care services to supervise and place children who cannot remain safely in their homes because of child abuse and neglect; adoption subsidies, including financial and medical subsidies to families who adopt children with special needs; and family preservation and prevention services. In addition, DHS works in partnership with counties to fund services for delinquent and maltreated children and youths through the Child Care Fund.

While funding for some child welfare services has increased in recent years as a result of litigation against the state for its failures in meeting the needs of abused and neglected children, funding for services to prevent maltreatment, and to strengthen and reunify families, continues to be woefully inadequate.


Governor: The governor’s budget included $190.8 million for foster care payments, a cut of $15 million (7.3%). The current year budget includes $205.8 million for foster care payments, with a caseload of 7,200. The governor projected that the Fiscal Year 2014 caseload would be 6,650.

Conference: The Conference Committee included $181.1 million for foster care payments, a reduction of 12% over the current year, and 5% below the governor’s recommendation for Fiscal Year 2014. The Conference Committee projects that foster care caseloads will fall to 6,250. The Committee also increased foster care administrative rates for private child placing agencies by $3 to a total of $40 per child per day.


Governor: The governor projected that adoption subsidy caseloads would increase slightly from 26,850 to 27,100 monthly, an increase of approximately 1%.

Conference: The Conference Committee assumes an adoption subsidy caseload of 27,150 in Fiscal Year 2014. The Committee also included $28 million for a $3 per child per day rate increase for all adoption subsidy cases. The current year budget had included funding for a $3 per day increase only for current foster care parents and new adoption subsidy cases. As a result of a legal opinion that DHS could not exclude current adoption subsidy cases from the increase, the higher rate was implemented in October of 2012 for all adoption subsidy cases, resulting in a budget shortfall of approximately $28 million. The Conference Committee rejected $2 million previously added by the Senate to allow adoptive parents to claim an additional subsidy if they discover that their adopted child has additional special needs after the adoption is finalized.


Governor: The governor’s budget included funding to continue to expand the number of child welfare workers in order to comply with a settlement agreement resulting from a lawsuit by Children’s Rights, Inc., a national advocacy organization. The lawsuit claimed that DHS was unable to move children quickly into safe, stable and permanent homes, provide children with adequate services, provide safe and stable foster homes, or prepare children who “age out” of the child welfare system. To address the settlement, in May of 2012, the governor requested a total of 577 new workers for the current fiscal year (FY 2013). The governor’s Fiscal Year 2014 budget revises the total number of child welfare enhancement staff needed to 496 (a cut of 81 FTEs), the majority of which are protective services workers. Overall, the governor’s budget includes funding for a total of 3,940 child welfare workers statewide.

Conference: The Conference Committee cut the number of new child welfare workers by an additional 80 positions, for a total cut of 161. This was substantially less than the cuts previously passed by the House, which cut an additional 151 positions above the governor’s recommendation, and the Senate, which reduced child welfare staffing by an additional 223 positions.


Governor: Based on current spending trends, the governor’s budget provided $177.5 million for the county Child Care Fund, a reduction of $11.1 million or 6% from current year expenditures of $188.7 million. The Child Care Fund provides for the care and treatment of delinquent or maltreated children who are court wards and not eligible for federal payments through Title IV-E. The primary sources of funding for the Child Care Fund are state General Funds and federal TANF.

Conference: Based on the May 15th consensus agreement, the Conference Committee provided $171 million for the Child Care Fund. Included in the Conference Committee budget is $5.1 million for an increase of $3 per child per day for private child placing agencies, as well as a cut of $11 million as a result of DHS audits of Child Care Fund claims made by counties to identify improper claims. The Senate also added $1.5 million for counties to expand their in-home, community-based juvenile justice programs.


Governor: The governor provided largely continuation funding for Families First ($18.0 million), Strong Families/Safe Children ($12.4 million), Child Protection and Permanency ($16.8 million), and the Family Reunification Program ($4 million). The governor also allocated $2.5 million in one-time funding to expand the Families Together Building Solutions program to Macomb and Muskegon counties, and to expand the Supportive Visitation/Home-Based Parent Education program to additional counties.

Conference: The Conference Committee:

  • Rejected the governor’s $2.5 million expansion in one-time family preservation funding.
  • Further reduced funding for family preservation programs by $4.2 million, including cuts in Families First, Child Protection and Permanency, and family reunification.
  • Cut funding contracts for runaway youth services by 10% in order to partially offset costs related to the adoption subsidy shortfall.
  • Provided $2.5 million in federal funds for pilot programs in Kalamazoo, Macomb and Muskegon counties to prevent children from birth through age 5 from entering foster care.


1. The Child Development and Care program is now funded through the Michigan Department of Education budget.
2. The Medicaid program is funded through the Department of Community Health budget.
3. The total unduplicated count takes into account individuals that receive more than one public benefit (e.g., are eligible both for the Family Independence program and Medicaid).
4. Summary of FY 2013, 2014, 2015 Consensus Agreement – May 10, 2013, Department of Human Services – Major Spending and Caseload Programs, Fiscal Year 2014, State Budget Office (total FIP caseloads includes Extended FIP benefits and Short Term Family Support).
5. Total Cases, Recipients and Payments for FIP, FAP, SDA, CDC and SER Benefits Trend Information, Fiscal Years 2011, 2012 and 2013, Green Book Report of Key Program Statistics, Michigan Department of Human Services. Fiscal Year 2013 is an average monthly year-to-date through April of 2013.

An opportunity we can’t afford to waste

Last week’s Revenue Estimating Conference—the second meeting this year of the state’s best prognosticators on the ups and downs of Michigan’s economy and related tax revenues—brought some good news: Revenues are higher than expected.

Michigan, like other states around the country, has turned the corner following the national Great Recession, and revenues are inching up while unemployment slowly falls. The new revenue consensus by state fiscal experts is that Michigan will have an additional $702 million in combined revenues above earlier estimates for fiscal years 2013 and 2014—including a total of $579 million in state General Funds, and $123 million in the School Aid Fund.


Law enforcement leaders: Expand Medicaid eligibility

Fight Crime: Invest in Kids Michigan has issued a letter, signed by 50 Michigan law enforcement leaders, strongly supporting Gov. Rick Snyder’s proposal to accept federal funds to expand Medicaid to low-income, uninsured citizens with incomes up to 133% of the federal poverty level.

In their letter, they cite numerous benefits to providing coverage including:

  • Treatment of  mental health problems and substance abuse reduces crime;
  • A greater likelihood that kids are insured when parents are insured;
  • Reduction of child abuse and neglect through comprehensive mental health services for parents;
  • Coverage for women, prior to pregnancy, may reduce fetal alcohol exposure; and
  • Troubled young adults would have greater access to mental health services. (more…)

House Subcommittee Approves FY 2014 Budget for Community Health

 Full report in PDF

On March 20, the House Appropriations Subcommittee for the Department of Community Health approved its version of the Fiscal Year 2014 budget. Overall, the Subcommittee did not support programs recommended by the governor to improve the health status of Michigan residents. Of critical importance, the Subcommittee did not support the governor’s recommendation to accept federal funds to expand eligibility for the Medicaid program.

The Subcommittee also did not support expanded funding for key initiatives recommended by the governor including the Healthy Kids Dental program, infant mortality reduction initiatives, mental health and substance abuse service improvements for veterans, mental health innovation grants for high risk children and youths, or Health and Wellness initiatives. Subcommittee initiatives included in the budget are increased funding for the Nurse Family Partnership and pregnancy and parenting support projects.

The House Subcommittee’s budget includes $15.3 billion in total funding for the Department of Community Health in Fiscal Year 2014, a 2% increase over current year funding, but 8% below the Governor’s recommended budget for Fiscal Year 2014.

Included in the House Subcommittee budget are the following:


Medicaid expansion:

    • Governor: The governor’s budget includes 100% federal funds to support the expansion of Medicaid coverage to very low-income parents and childless adults up to 133% of the federal poverty level. This influx of federal revenue would increase total Medicaid funding to $12.3 billion, and result in savings in the state’s General Fund of $206 million by allowing the state to use federal funds to provide comprehensive services to a population that is currently eligible for very limited state funded health benefits. The governor recommended that half of the savings in state funding ($103 million) be deposited in a newly created healthcare savings fund, with the remainder used to expand the Healthy Kids Dental program and other state services.

The expansion would increase the number of Michigan residents covered by Medicaid from approximately 1.8 million to 2.2 million, reducing the number of uninsured adults by 46%.

    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee rejected the governor’s recommendation to accept Michigan’s share of federal funds to expand healthcare coverage to 320,000 low-income parents and individuals through the Medicaid program, likely forcing many to remain uninsured, reducing access to primary care, and increasing costs through emergency room care.

Healthy Kids Dental:

    • Governor: The governor included $11.6 million ($3.9 million in state General Funds) to expand the Healthy Kids Dental program to 70,500 children in three counties: Ingham, Ottawa and Washtenaw. With this expansion, 50% of eligible children statewide would be covered in Fiscal Year 2014, and the governor indicated his intention to expand the program to an additional 100,000 children in Fiscal Year 2015.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee rejected the governor’s recommendation.

Graduate medical education:

    • Governor: The governor’s budget cut the one-time funding for the Graduate Medical Education program by $4.3 million. These funds are used by teaching hospitals to offset the costs of operating medical residency programs for physicians, and to provide care to uninsured and other vulnerable populations in hospitals and clinics.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee reduced funding for Graduate Medical Education by a $2.7 million, leaving $1.7 million in one-time funds.


Medicaid expansion:

    • Governor: The Medicaid expansion endorsed by the governor in his Fiscal Year 2014 budget would include comprehensive mental health services.
    • House Subcommittee: By rejecting the Medicaid expansion, the Subcommittee’s budget denies comprehensive mental health services to an estimated 320,000 Michigan residents, forcing them to go without needed services, be added to a waiting list for services, or receive services through the corrections system.

Mental health innovations:

    • Governor: The governor included $5 million in one-time General Fund dollars for mental health innovations, including: (1) comprehensive home-based mental health services for children to reduce child hospitalizations and strengthen families ($2.5 million); (2) a pilot program to address the needs of youths with complex behavior disorders ($1 million); and (3) mental health “first aid” training for a range of public and private groups, including law enforcement officers, to ensure that they can identify mental health problems ($1.5 million).
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee rejected the governor’s recommendation.

Mental health services for special populations:

    • Governor: The governor reduced funding for mental health services for special populations from $8.8 million to $5.8 million, a cut of 34%. Included in the cuts are the Hispanic/Latino Commission, ACCESS, Arab/Chaldean services, the Chaldean Chamber Foundation, and the Michigan Jewish Federation.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee concurred with the governor.

Jail diversion initiative:

    • Governor: The governor redirected $1.6 million in state funds currently used by psychiatric hospitals to a new jail diversion initiative that will enhance current diversion efforts for individuals with mental illness, emotional disturbances, or developmental disabilities within five Michigan communities.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee concurred with the governor’s recommendation, adding language that gives priority to county sheriffs and community courts, specifying the St. Joseph County Sheriff and the 36th District Court community court project.

Mental health and substance abuse services for veterans:

    • Governor: The governor recommended $60,000 to improve mental health and substance abuse services for veterans and their families, including training and credentialing for community mental health and substance abuse programs, co-location with services provided through the Veterans Health Administration, and training for law enforcement officers in recognizing post-traumatic stress disorders.
    • House Subcommittee: The House Subcommittee rejected the governor’s proposal.

Services for persons with chronic mental health conditions:

    • Governor: The governor included $900,000 for three “behavioral health home” demonstration projects for Medicaid recipients with chronic mental health conditions. The model coordinates physical and mental health care, including comprehensive case management, family education and service referrals. The demonstration projects would be located in the Washtenaw area (Washtenaw, Livingston, Lenawee and Monroe counties), Northern Michigan (21 counties), and either Saginaw County or the Genesee region.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee concurred with the governor’s recommendation.


    • Governor: The governor recommended $3 million for competitive grants to address emerging healthcare and service delivery system issues and needs, encourage innovation in service delivery, and build partnerships between the public and private sectors.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee rejected the governor’s recommendation.


Local public health services:

    • Governor: The governor recommended no changes in funding for local public health essential services, which are funded at $37.4 million in the current fiscal year.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee included current funding of $37.4 million, but added a $100 placeholder to ensure a point of difference for later legislative debates, indicating an interest in a possible restoration of funding for local public health departments.

Health and Wellness Initiative:

    • Governor: The governor’s budget removed $5 million in one-time state funding available in the current year for Health and Wellness initiatives, and then increased ongoing funding by $1.5 million, bringing total funding to $8.7 million–a net reduction of $3.5 million or 29%. The largest cuts in the governor’s budget include the elimination of funding for cancer prevention and control ($862,500), an 87% cut ($750,000) in the pregnancy prevention program, and a 44% cut in both the 4×4 wellness program ($1 million) and cardiovascular health programs ($317,500). Also reduced are the diabetes and kidney programs, health disparities, the Michigan Care Improvement Immunization Registry, the Michigan Model for school health, and smoking prevention programs.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee concurred with the reduction of the one-time funding of $5 million, but rejected the additional $1.5 million in ongoing funding, resulting in total recommended funding of $7.2 million, or a reduction of 41% in the Health and Wellness Initiative. The Subcommittee eliminated funding for the 4×4 wellness program, and took additional cuts in cardiovascular health and smoking prevention programs.

Infant mortality reduction:

    • Governor: The governor included $2.5 million in state funds to implement recommendations in the Infant Mortality Reduction Plan, including regional perinatal care, initiatives to reduce medically unnecessary deliveries before 39 weeks, the promotion of safe sleep practices for infants, and expanded home visiting programs. Medicaid currently pays for 51% of all Michigan births, and Michigan ranked 36th in the country in infant deaths in 2012, with infant deaths rates that are three times higher for African American babies.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee rejected the governor’s recommendation.

Home visitation programs:

    • Governor: The governor’s budget did not include new funding for home visitation or parent support programs. During last year’s budget cycle, the Legislature approved $2 million for a home visitation and support program that promotes childbirth and adoption, as well as an additional $1 million for the Nurse Family Partnership program. The governor vetoed both budget increases.
    • House Subcommittee: The Subcommittee included $350,000 in state funds for the Nurse Family Partnership program, a 4% increase, as well as $700,000 for a new pregnancy and parenting support pilot project. Budget language indicates that the Nurse Family Partnership funding is to be used to improve training and support for nursing teams, recruit families in high-need communities, and plan and market a program in Detroit. The goals of the pregnancy and parenting support pilot are to promote childbirth choice, educate parents about adoption options, improve parenting skills, and provide abstinence education. Counseling, support and referral services would be available to women during pregnancy through 12 months after birth.

Want to tackle poverty? Restore the EITC

Today is the seventh annual EITC Awareness Day.

The EITC — Earned Income Tax Credit — is a refundable tax credit available to low- and middle-income families who work and pay other taxes. The EITC helps offset regressive taxes that hit poor families the hardest – such as federal payroll, sales, property, and excise taxes  – and provides much needed relief to low-income families (those earning under 200% of the federal poverty line).

Michigan working families can currently claim two Earned Income Tax Credits: a federal EITC and a state EITC, which is designed to supplement the federal credit. In Michigan, according to the latest available data, one-third of all working families are considered low-income and one in every four children live in poverty (a higher childhood poverty rate than the national average). (more…)

Let’s resolve to make Michigan healthier

From the January newsletter
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Happy New Year!

As you make your New Year’s resolutions – healthy eating and exercising are my all-time favorites – let’s resolve to make Michigan a healthier place too.

The start of the New Year means that budget setting is right around the corner. First with the governor’s executive budget, then with the Legislature’s public hearings and votes, the budget process is our chance to set our priorities as a state. (more…)

No better time to tell your story

Teri Banas

Teri Banas

Like 15,000 others in Michigan this year, Monique Taylor of Detroit knows first-hand how life can go from just squeezing by to getting behind in everyday household bills. From paying the utility bill to worrying if the utility provider is going to notice her monthly payment plan check is short. From buying basic toiletries not covered by “food stamps” to helping organize a “basic needs” drive so people like her can get toilet paper, toothpaste and detergent for her children’s clothes.

Unfortunately for the disabled single mother of four, she worries every day what the future will hold. Tears rain down easily these days. One of thousands cut off from “cash assistance” support in Michigan in February, she’s lost an extra $520 a month in household income this year and living without has gotten a lot harder. (more…)

The cost of ignorance

This week the U.S. House of Representatives voted 232-190 to eliminate all funding for the American Community Survey — the bedrock of a substantial body of information about child well-being, as well as overall population characteristics for every place in the country.

Five of the 10 key indicators monitored annually by the national KIDS COUNT project to evaluate child well-being in the states come from this survey. The survey collects data about poverty, employment, education, family status — many of the indicators used by communities to evaluate social and economic well-being. This information would no longer be available to track outcomes, guide public policy and assess community needs. (more…)

It’s about all of us

If your neighbors are struggling, you will feel it, see it in your back yard.

If your family members are struggling, you will feel it, see it at the dinner table.

If your school is struggling, you will feel it, see it on your child’s face. (more…)

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